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    The Intelligent Flexible Energy System (IFES)

    To bring out the full potential of the nickel-cadmium battery, the Intelligent Flexible Energy System (IFES) for battery management was developed. The system’s computer unit enabled status and data sharing among the principal PAS components of the battery, charger, and onboard controller. The ever-changing state of the battery such as current, voltage, use frequency, usage conditions and battery temperature, is sent to the charger and controller to simplify battery life maintenance and management. The PAS Royal featuring the IFES was also equipped with an automatic refresh function to prevent battery memory effect.